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What is ISO?

ISO (international organization for standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies.

ISO is a nongovernmental organization that comprises standards bodies from more than 160 countries, with one standards body representing each member country.

What is the purpose of the ISO?

The object of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with a view to facilitating international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity.

Why ISO is required?

The international organization for standardization develops specifications for products, services, systems and procedures by which they can measure their level of excellence. A company cannot be considered truly standardized until it has earned its iso certification.  

  • Improved chance of winning contracts

Having iso 9001 certification can go a long way to helping a business to secure partnerships with both the public and private sectors. With public sector tenders, certification to iso 9001 is a strong signal that a business is well-run and credible, removing the need for extensive due diligence.  Similarly, many private sector organizations have made it a requirement for their suppliers to be certified to iso 9001.  It signifies that quality is taken seriously and can be relied on in all aspects of the business.

  • Higher customer satisfaction

One of the most important aspects of the iso 9001 standard is tracking customer satisfaction and responding to any issues raised.  Companies that seek and maintain iso 9001 certification prove that they take this issue seriously.

  • Reduced product or service problems

Iso 9001 certified businesses are better prepared to deal with the unexpected. For instance, if a product is not up to scratch, there will be processes in place that help to ensure that the problem is dealt with efficiently and does not recur.

  • Better management

Appropriate analysis and reporting is a key factor in running a business well.  The iso 9001 standard helps businesses to get this right.

  • Increased consistency in business practices

Implementing the practices required by the standard will offer the type of consistency that benefits everyone, including customers. It ensures that processes within a business are common and understood which helps employees be clearer on the tasks involved, rather than spending time thinking about what to do or even making things up.

  • Enhanced employee satisfaction and job security

Staff enjoy greater job satisfaction and feel more secure about their jobs in a business where processes are well-defined and clearly managed.

  • Lower costs

Achieving and maintaining certification to iso 9001 can lead to lower insurance premiums. This is because insurers recognize that these businesses have appropriate processes and controls that reduce risks.

  • Streamlined business processes

No business wants unnecessary paperwork and yet many are burdened by precisely that.  The discipline inherent in the iso 9001 standard means that business processes should be streamlined.  Regular reviews mean that processes should not become flabby. 9.  Continuous improvement

A good quality management system provides a solid foundation for improvements to be made year on year.

  • Overall business improvement

The aggregate effect of the nine individual benefits outlined above is an overall business improvement and consequently profit.

What is the need to do risk assessment & how long should risk assessments be kept?

There is no set amount of time that you are required to retain the risk assessment, but it is best practice to keep it as long as is considered relevant to a particular task or activity. Risk assessments are an integral part of ensuring the health, safety and wellbeing of everyone within the workplace.

Does any ISO an improvement of a business?

Business performance is defined by product quality, waste control, cost reduction,

competitiveness improvement, sales volume, and profitability. An ISO 9001 system ensures each of these factors improves with the implementation of requirements which are built-in to various clauses of   the standard.

What is Annex SL and why it is used?

Annex SL (renamed in 2019 as Annex-L) is a new management system format that helps streamline creation of new standards, and makes implementing multiple standards within one organization easier. It replaces iso’s guide 83, which provided a base structure and standardized test for management system standards (MSS)

What is the Annex SL system structure?

Annex SL provides the new high-level structure for ISO management systems standards – it replaces the historical ISO guide 83 and expands on the base structure already implemented. It has been created to introduce identical core text and common terms and definitions.

What was the vision behind annex SL ?

The vision behind annex SL (renamed in 2019 as Annex-L) is a new management system format that helps streamline creation of new standards, and makes implementing multiple standards within one organization easier. It replaces iso’s guide 83, which provided a base structure and standardized test for management system standards (MSS).

Harmonization allows companies to understand the minimum regulatory and customer requirements of international markets. This in turn allows companies to produce goods for those markets. There are a number of public, private, and government-to-government organizations that are involved in harmonization of standards.

Who created annex SL?

Annex SL is a product of the ISO technical management boards (TMB) joint technical coordination group (JTCG). The TMB is charged with managing the technical processes associated with implementing new technical standards. This includes the rules which govern standards creation, checking how the process is working, and managing the technical committees which construct the standards. The JTCG reports to the TMB and specifically manages the activities associated with creating and implementing an MSS. One of its main tasks is to ensure that the input from the various technical committees associated with each standard are represented in the resulting MSS of a given area (i.e. Environmental, aerospace, etc.)

What is the total cost involved in the ISO certification process?

The answer depends upon following:

  • Processes of organization
  • Size in terms of number of workers
  • Size in terms of multi sites
  • Requirement of any specific accreditation
Which is the first group that succeeded to reach an agreement with it?

Several attempts have been made since the late 90s to harmonize the way to write these but the first group that succeeded to reach an agreement was the joint technical coordination group (JTCG) set up by iso/technical management board.

How annex SL works?

Annex SL (renamed in 2019 as Annex-L) is a new management system format that helps streamline creation of new standards, and makes implementing multiple standards within one organization easier. It replaces iso’s guide 83, which provided a base structure and standardized test for management system standards (MSS).

What is quality control & their tools and techniques?

There are seven basic quality tools identified as appropriate for use in both the quality management plan and control quality processes. They are known as Ishikawa’s seven basic tools of quality: cause-and-effect diagrams, flowcharting, check sheets, pareto diagrams, control charts, histograms and scatter diagrams.

What is 5s and when & where was firstly it introduced?

5s is a very popular workplace organization methodology that was first developed

in japan. The true origin of 5s is a little bit confusing. It was first officially introduced in the 1970’s in the Toyota motor company.

Where can be 5s be used?

The following are some of the industries that are starting to implement 5s on a regular basis, and how it can be beneficial.

  • Health care.
  • Office jobs.
  • Information technology.
  • Restaurants.
  • Homemakers.
What are the benefits of 5s?

Key benefits of 5s process implementation

Increased productivity. Every organization works towards achieving increased productivity, after all, productivity increases the overall return on investment.

Improved safety. Improved safety is yet another benefit of 5s implementation.

Reduction in waste.

Worker commitment

How does 5s help the business to grow?

Increased productivity. Every organization works towards achieving increased productivity, after all, productivity increases the overall return on investment.

Improved safety. Improved safety is yet another benefit of 5s implementation.

Reduction in waste.

Worker commitment.

What is PDCA cycle?

PDCA is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the deeming circle/cycle/wheel, the Shewhart cycle, the control circle/cycle, or plan–do–study–act.

What is a “gap analysis"?

Gap analysis is the process companies use to examine their current performance with their desired, expected performance. … Gap analysis is the means by which a company can recognize its current state—by measuring time, money, and labor— and compare it to its target state.

What are the benefits of PDCA cycle?

PDCA has some significant advantages:

  • It stimulates continuous improvement of people and processes.
  • It lets your team test possible solutions on a small scale and in a controlled environment.
  • It prevents the work process from recurring mistakes.
What are the process of gap analysis?

A gap analysis is process that compares actual performance or results with what was expected or desired. … By comparing the current state with the target state, companies, business units, or teams can determine what they need to work on to make their performance or results better and get on the right path quicker.

How can I become an ISO certified internal auditor?
  • Choose the desired Management System Standard to become Internal Auditor.
  • Contact us filled Training Inquiry Form.
  • Book yourself for nearest training programme.
  • Join a two-day programme that included assessment exam of one hour.
  • Get the certified after successful result of programme.
What is a “Zero Defect”?

Zero defects mean an ideal state of productivity with processes based approach getting the products (goods or services) out with defect of 3.4 per million which is nearest to Zero Defect ideology.

What is the Cost of Quality?

Cost of quality (COQ) is defined as a methodology that allows an organization to determine the extent to which its resources are used for activities that prevent poor quality, that appraise the quality of the organization’s products or services, and that result from internal and external failures.

The Cost of Quality can be divided into four categories.

  • Prevention
  • Appraisal
  • Internal Failure
  • External Failure


What are the limitations of Zero Defects?

A process can be over engineered by an organization in its efforts to create zero defects. Whilst endeavoring to create a situation of zero defects increasing time and expense may be spent in an attempt to build the perfect process that delivers the perfect finished product, which in reality may not be possible.

What are the categories of Cost of Quality (COQ)?
  • Appraisal costs

Appraisal costs (also known as inspection costs) are those cost that are incurred to identify defective products before they are shipped to customers. All costs associated with the activities that are performed during manufacturing processes to ensure required quality standards are also included in this category.

  • Internal failure costs

Internal failure costs are those costs that are incurred to remove defects from the products before shipping them to customers. Examples of internal failure costs include cost of rework, rejected products, scrap etc.

  • External failure costs
  • If defective products have been shipped to customers, external failure costs arise. External failure costs include warranties, replacements, lost sales because of bad reputation, payment for damages arising from the use of defective products etc. The shipment of defective products can dissatisfy customers, damage goodwill, and reduce sales and profits.
What is Supply Chain Management - SCM?

Supply chain management (SCM) is a management of supply chain activities to maximize customer value and achieve a sustainable and uninterrupted supply of product (goods and services) with respect to the undersigned terms and condition at least between client and external provider.

Therefore, it represents a conscious effort by the supply chain firms to develop and run supply chains in the most effective & efficient ways possible.

Why is supply chain management important?


  • It meets the organizational objectives of timely availability of desired resources.
  • Sets criteria to meet the assigned targets of resource availability.
  • Opportunity to select reliable external providers inform of suppliers, vendors, contractor and outsourcing agents.
  • Peace of mind.
  • Smooth customer deliveries.


  • Decreases Purchasing Cost – Retailors depend on supply chains to quickly distribute costly products to avoid sitting on expensive inventories.
  • Decrease Production Cost – Any delay in production can cost a company ten of thousands of dollars. This factor makes supply chain management ever more important. Reliable delivery of materials to assembly plants avoids any costly delays in manufacturing.
  • Decrease Total Supply Chain Cost – Wholesale manufacturers and retailer suppliers depend on proficient supply chain management to design a network that meets customer service goals. This gives businesses a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Improve Financial Position

  • Insert Profit Leverage – Businesses value supply chain managers because they help control and decrease supply chain expenditures.
  • Decrease Fixed Assets – Supply chain managers decrease the use of large fixed assets such as plants, warehouses, and transportation vehicles, essentially diminishing cost.
  • Increases Cash Flow – Firms appreciate the added value supply chain management contributes to the speed of product flows to customers.
What are the major obstacles to successfully implementing supply chain management?

Major barriers to the implementation of supply chain management are:

  • Lack of senior management commitment,
  • Lack of understanding the concept of supply chain management,
  • Having an inadequate organizational structure to support the supply chain management system,
  • Low commitment of partners.
  • Lack of information technology
  • Infrastructure and resistance of the suppliers to change, short-term and price-oriented approaches, lack of top management support

Production being project-based and large in volume, widely spread contentious relationships in the industry and difficulties in accessing the resources.

What is communication? What is the type of communication?

Communication means transferring thoughts, information, emotion and ideas through gesture, voice, symbols, signs, and expressions from one person to another

Communication can be categorized into three basic types: 

  • Verbal communication, in which to listen to a person to understand their meaning.
  • Written communication, in which to read their meaning
  • Nonverbal communication, in which to observe a person and suppose meaning.
What is ISO 15378 certification?

ISO 15378:2017 specifies requirements for a quality management system when an organization:

  • Needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide products and services that meet customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements, andAims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system, including processes for improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.
  • All the requirements of this international standard are generic and are intended to be applicable to any organization, regardless of its type or size, or the products and services it provides.
What is sustainable development?

Sustainable development is the idea that human societies must live and meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The “official” definition of sustainable development was developed for the first time in the Brundtland Report in 1987.

What is the difference between HACCP and gaps?

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is designed to apply to processed food, including processed fruits and vegetables, while Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) apply just to fresh produce. HACCP is required by law for producers of meat and poultry, seafood and juices, but is not required by law for other food products. GAPs is not required by law. It is strictly voluntary.

What is the difference between GMP/ CGMP and gaps?

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) are regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and apply to processed fruits and vegetables, but not to fresh fruits and vegetables. GMPs regulate the production, for example, of acidified foods (such as pickles), fruit preserves (jams and jellies), baked goods, dressings and condiments, and frozen fruits and vegetables. GAPs are suggested guidance, not regulation, and they apply to the production of fresh produce.

What is “quality culture”?

It is kind of culture that every organization requires where it could achieve its intended outcome and objectives. Therefore, organization assures the availability of resources to be allocated to make such culture of quality by hiring or assigning the quality responsible of organization supporting the core values of quality culture.

What are the core values and beliefs of a quality culture?

The Core Values and Beliefs of a Quality Culture are:

  • Customer focus- Quality is defined and judged by the customers. The mission of quality organizations is centered upon customer satisfaction. Organizational processes and procedures are designed to meet the requirements of both the external and internal customer
  • Employee involvement and empowerment- Employees are empowered to serve customers well and believe that they have the power to make things happen.
  • Open and honest communication -Employees speak the truth and quality issues are discussed, rather than hidden or ignored. Quality cannot be achieved when employees fear retribution for their candor. Employees also handle conflict constructively by confronting and resolving it.
  • Fact-based problem solving and decision making-Facts or reliable data and not opinions or hearsay form the basis of solving problems systematically or making intelligent decisions.
  • Continuous improvement as a way of life- Quality is a moving target; there is no one best or optimum level of quality. Organizations have to continuously improve the quality of their products and services to stay ahead in an increasingly competitive business world. In short, quality improvement is a never-ending journey.
  • Teamwork throughout the organization- In a quality culture, there is close cooperation between managers and employees and among departments. Teamwork is crucial as it creates a sense of ownership and commitment. Equally important, it breaks down divisional and functional barriers.
  • Process management- Long-lasting quality improvement is attained through preventive management i.e. building quality into the work processes. Quality should be attained through the prevention of errors and defects, and not through inspection. The focus is on prevention rather than firefighting, fixing, and damage control.
  • Rewards and recognition- In a quality culture, rewards and recognition are based upon attainment of quality goals and demonstration of appropriate behavior.
What is accreditation? Where accreditation is used and type of accreditation?

Accreditation is the act of granting credit or recognition, especially to an educational institution that maintains suitable standards. … If you earn a teaching certificate, then you have an accreditation to teach. Usually you’ll hear this word in relation to institutions like colleges and universities.

There are two main types of accreditation – institutional and programmatic. Institutional accreditation reviews educational institutions, while programmatic accreditation reviews specific programs within institutions. There are also two branches of institutional accreditation – regional and national.

What is the goal of a business continuity plan?

A business continuity plan involves the following:

  1. Analysis of organizational threats
  2. A list of the primary tasks required to keep the organization operations flowing
  3. Explanation of where personnel should go if there is a disastrous event
  4. Easily located management contact information
  5. Information on data backups and organization site backup
  6. Collaboration among all facets of the organization
  7. Buy-in from everyone in the organization
How do I become an ISO auditor?
  • Be analytical
  • Must learn auditing principles and techniques
  • Must learn auditor’s code of ethics
  • Awareness of specific standard. i.e. QMS, EMS or OHSMS
What is the role and responsibilities of a lead auditor?

A lead auditor is responsible for leading the audit team along with audit members. The main purpose of lead auditor is to perform audit as per audit procedure that includes: planning, scheduling, audit, reporting and recommendation. Post of audit to communicate the project to the management of his certification body.

What are the steps for towards social responsibility?

Define your messaging. Don’t strike blindly at different goals, such as preserving rainforests one quarter and then investing in a community project the next. Come up with causes that resonate with your business culture, research the kind of support they need, then pick one and stick with it.

Involve your customers. If you haven’t picked a cause yet, come up with a list of alternatives and ask your web site visitors and Facebook fans to vote on which one they would like to see you support.

Create a scorecard. Make sure it features achievable and measurable goals and keep it visible on your site, tracking your progress. Be honest about any setbacks – you want the tone to be authentic, not promotional.

Use social media. Don’t just tell your customers what you’re doing; solicit their ideas, experiences, and concerns to get them invested in your projects. Make sure you use multiple digital platforms – such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and a YouTube channel – to reach people with different media preferences.

Partner with a third party. Forming an alliance with a non-profit will not only lend credibility to your efforts, but let you benefit from the non-profit’s greater experience in fundraising and philanthropy. The alliance will also offer an opportunity to blend customers and networks.

Seek publicity. If you’ve never sought media coverage for your business before, this might be the time to start. Send out a press release about any contests, events or fundraising drives – and reach out to media outlets that present on green topics as they’ll be apt to give you positive coverage.

Repurpose your CSR reports. Using charts, stories, and photos in your annual reports and newsletters will appeal to stakeholders and shareholders alike.

What is the main goal of information security?

The fundamental principles of information security include:

  • Confidentiality: The first goal of Network Security is “Confidentiality”. The function of “Confidentiality” is in protecting precious business data (in storage or in motion) from unauthorized persons. Confidentiality part of Network Security makes sure that the data is available OLNY to intended and authorized persons.
  • Integrity: The second goal of Network Security is “Integrity”. Integrity aims at maintaining and assuring the accuracy and consistency of data. The function of Integrity is to make sure that the date is accurate and reliable and is not changed by unauthorized persons or hackers
  • Availability: The third goal of network security is “Availability”. The function of “Availability” in Network Security is to make sure that the Data, Network Resources or Network Services are continuously available to the legitimate users, whenever they require it.
What is risk-based thinking and why it has been introduced into the standard?

In the context of ISO 9001:2015, risk-based thinking replaces what was called preventive action in the previous standard version.

It’s important to note that risk isn’t limited to negative possibilities. Companies can also use risk-based thinking to pinpoint opportunities, which represent the positive side of risk.

Areas where risk appears in the new standard requirements include:

  • Context of organization: When establishing the context of the organization, ISO requires companies to identify risks that could impact its objectives of business processes. There is also needed to evaluate the risk of producing nonconforming products (goods and services), which can vary depending on the type of good manufactured.
  • Leadership: Your company’s management must commit to addressing risks and opportunities that could affect product quality.
  • Planning: This section of the standard requires you to not just identify risks and opportunities, but also create plans for how to address them.
  • Support: Monitoring of resources including work environment consider risk based thinking for their conformity to make sure the support activities of organization to avoid any nonconformance in the middle of the business processes.
  • Operation: ISO requires you to implement and control the actions identified during planning steps.
  • Performance evaluation: Here’s where you track and analyze the risks and opportunities identified.
  • Improvement: Organizations must make improvements based on any changes in risk.
What is disaster recovery?

Disaster recovery is a simple term to remain safe from lost of physical and non-physical resource (i.e. information). Information technology is part of security planning and is developed in aggregation with a business continuity plan.

Disaster recovery is a set of policies and procedures which focus on protecting an organization from any significant effects in case of a negative event, which may include cyberattacks, natural disasters or building or device failures. Person who is responsible for the disaster recovery is said to be ‘Lead Disaster Recovery Manager’.

What are the core subjects of social responsibility?
  • Organizational Governance: is the system by which an organization makes and implements decisions in pursuit of its objectives. This is the most crucial factor in enabling an organization to take responsibility for the impacts of its decisions and activities.
  • Human Rights: are the basic rights to which all human beings are entitled. There are two broad categories of human rights. The first category concerns civil and political rights and includes such rights as the right to life and liberty, equality before the law and freedom of expression.
  • Labor Practices is a term that encompass all the policies and practices relating to work performed on behalf of the organization, including the recruitment and promotion of workers; disciplinary and grievance procedures; transfer and relocation of workers; termination of employment; training and skills development; health, safety and industrial hygiene; and any policy or practice affecting work conditions.
  • Environmental Responsibility is a precondition for the survival and prosperity of human beings. As the global population and global consumption continue to increase, several environmental and social threats are posed.
  • Fair Operating Practices concern the way an organization uses its relationships with other organizations to promote positive outcomes
  • Consumer Issues regarding the social responsibility are related to, among other matters, fair marketing practices, protection of health and safety, sustainable consumption, dispute resolution and redress, data and privacy protection, access to essential products and services, reference the needs of vulnerable and disadvantaged consumers, and education.
  • Community Involvement and Development are two of the most important initiatives that all the organizations, public and private, can take towards developing a sustainable society
What is ISO 26000?

The ISO 26000 standard of guideline establishes the principles and guidelines of the concept of social responsibility. These standards also offer guidance and suggestions on implementation methods for different kinds of organizations (companies, NGOs, unions, etc) to start operating in a socially responsible way. In this way, it is expected that companies with this certification act ethically, transparently, and contribute to the welfare of society.

Any private or public organization wishing to establish the scope of its social responsibility according to the criteria of the ISO 26000 standard must begin by reflecting on 7 central issues:

  • Organizational governance
  • Human rights
  • Labor practices
  • Environmental responsibility
  • The fairness of organizational practices
  • Consumer and consumer protection issues
  • Evolving and developing communities

It is similar to the basic principles of social compliance (CSR) standards. i.e. SA 8000, SMETA, WRAP, BSCI, FLA.

What are the benefits of following ISO 26000?

According to the ‘international organization for standardization’, a good organizational performance on social responsibility can have a positive impact in:

  1. HR, as it attracts and retains workers, members, clients, and users;
  2. Marketing and customer engagement, since it improves brand reputation;
  3. Increasing the commitment and productivity of employees;

The relationships with stakeholders such as governments, the media, other companies and communities and their perceptions on the organization’s performances and commitments

What are the steps implementations of risk management process?

Together these 5 risk management process steps combine to deliver a simple and effective risk management process.

Step 1: Identify the Risk

The first step is to identify the risks that the business is exposed to in its operating environment. There are many different types of risks – legal risks, environmental risks, market risks, regulatory risks, and much more. It is important to identify as many of these risk factors as possible. In a manual environment, these risks are noted down manually.

Step 2: Analyze the risk

Once a risk has been identified it needs to be analyzed. The scope of the risk must be determined. It is also important to understand the link between the risk and different factors within the organization.

Step 3: Evaluate or Rank the Risk

Risks need to be ranked and prioritized. Most risk management solutions have different categories of risks, depending on the severity of the risk. A risk that may cause some inconvenience is rated lowly; risks that can result in catastrophic loss are rated the highest.

Step 4: Treat the Risk/ Mitigation

Every risk needs to be eliminated or contained as much as possible. This is done by connecting with the experts of the field to which the risk belongs to. In a manual environment, this entails contacting each and every stakeholder and then setting up meetings so everyone can talk and discuss the issues

Step 5: Monitor and Review the risk

Not all risks can be eliminated – some risks are always present. Market risks and environmental risks are just two examples of risks that always need to be monitored.

What are the major changes in the ISO 27001:2013 version?

Some of the major changes in the controls are:

  • Inclusion of System engineering and project management: New controls added to address information security in project management, Secure development policy, Secure system engineering principles.
  • Mobile device policy: This is to address increasing use of mobile devices in information processing and also use of personal devices to access organizational information assets.
  • System security testing: information processing systems should be tested for its compliance to security requirements. This testing is in addition to the regular system acceptance test conducted after system changes.
What is a Management System?

A management system is a system with incorporated policies, standards operating procedures, plans, criteria and results of management norms that simply leads towards its business processes to achieve organizational core objective(s).

Its core parts are EEF (Enterprise Environment Factors) and OPA (Operational Processes Assets)

What is ISO/IEC 17025?

ISO 17025 is the international standard for testing and calibration laboratories. It’s a set of requirements those laboratories use to show that they operate a quality management system and that they’re technically competent to do the work that they do.

The standard is set out in five clauses:

  1. Scope
  2. Normative references
  3. Terms and definitions
  4. Management requirements
  5. Technical requirements
What are the benefits of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation?

ISO/IEC 17025 is an international standard for continuous improvement and self-correction. A laboratory that complies with ISO/IEC 17025 benefits in the following ways:

  • It enhances the reliability of test results generated by the laboratory
  • It can establish technical competency in the event of a speculation and/or legitimacy issues
  • The efficiency of the laboratory increases, customer complaints are reduced, the laboratory gains a strong competitive edge, and the operational expenditure is reduced
ISO 9001:2015 Lead Auditor’s Benefits
  • Understand the structure of QMS.
  • Understand the processes involved in auditing.
  • Plan, manage, and schedule an audit program.
  • Develop a cost-effective and compliant audit system.
  • Provide value addition to the system
What is “Responsibility and Authority”?

Authority means a formal, institutional, or legal power in a particular job, function or position that empowers the holder of that job, function or position to successfully perform his task.

Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior

How many controls are there in ISO 27001?
  • Information security policies (2 controls): how policies are written and reviewed.
  • Organization of information security (7 controls): the assignment of responsibilities for specific tasks.
  • Human resource security (6 controls): ensuring that employees understand their responsibilities prior to employment and once they’ve left or changed roles.
  • Asset management (10 controls): identifying information assets and defining appropriate protection responsibilities.
  • Access control (14 controls): ensuring that employees can only view information that’s relevant to their job role.
  • Cryptography (2 controls): the encryption and key management of sensitive information.
  • Physical and environmental security (15 controls): securing the organization’s premises and equipment.
  • Operations security (14 controls): ensuring that information processing facilities are secure.
  • Communications security (7 controls): how to protect information in networks.
  • System acquisition, development and maintenance (13 controls): ensuring that information security is a central part of the organization’s systems.
  • Supplier relationships (5 controls): the agreements to include in contracts with third parties, and how to measure whether those agreements are being kept.
  • Information security incident management (7 controls): how to report disruptions and breaches, and who is responsible for certain activities.
  • Information security aspects of business continuity management (4 controls): how to address business disruptions.
  • Compliance (8 controls): how to identify the laws and regulations that apply to your organization.
What are the 7 quality management principles?
  • Focus to customer and interested parties
  • Leadership
  • Engagement of People
  • Process Approach
  • Encourage Improvement
  • Evidence-based Decision Making
  • Relationship Management
What is the AS9100 quality management standard?
  • AS9100 is an international standard containing requirements for establishing and maintaining a quality management system for the aerospace industry.
  • Its official name is AS9100 Quality Management Systems – Requirements for Aviation, Space and Defense Organizations and it is intended to be used by organizations that design, develop, and produce aviation, space, and defense products and can be applied throughout the supply chain.
  • AS9100 is used by organizations that design, develop, and produce aviation, space, and defense products.AS9100 is used by organizations that design, develop, and produce aviation, space, and defense products.
  • This standard was published in October 1999 by the Society of Automotive Engineers and the European Association of Aerospace Industries.
What is ISO 45001 occupational health and safety management system standard?

ISO 45001:2018 specifies requirements for an occupational health and safety management system  OHSMS, and gives guidance for its use, to enable organizations to provide safe and healthy workplaces by preventing work-related injury and ill health, as well as by proactively improving its OH&S performance.

How ISO 45001 is helpful for organization?
  • Demonstrate compliance with current and future statutory and regulatory requirements
  • Increase leadership involvement and engagement of employees
  • Improve company reputation and the confidence of stakeholders through strategic communication
  • Achieve strategic business aims by incorporating environmental issues into business management
  • Provide a competitive and financial advantage through improved efficiencies and reduced costs
  • Encourage better environmental performance of suppliers by integrating them into the organization’s business systems
What are the benefits to implementing ISO 45001:2018?
  • Internal confidence of organization to its business processes
  • External confidence by customer to the organization
  • Increases trust in the business community
  • Consistency means efficiency
  • Lowers insurance premiums
  • Improves individual safety as well as organizational
  • Improves managerial oversight
  • Preventative risk and hazard assessment
  • Increases return on investment (ROI)
What are the differences between OHSAS 18001 and ISO 45001?
  • Structure

One of the biggest differences you’ll notice between OHSAS 18001 and ISO 45001 is how the standard is structured. The structure of ISO 45001 is based on the Annex-L framework.

  • Hazard identification

ISO 45001 also places a greater emphasis on risk management. Unlike OHSAS 18001, which only focused on controlling known hazards, ISO 45001 requires organizations to proactively identify sources or situations that have the potential to cause harm

  • Management commitment

Another change from OHSAS 18001 to ISO 45001 is a greater emphasis on management commitment and involvement. Under ISO 45001, safety management is no longer just the safety manager’s job. The new standard calls for C-suite executives to take an active and visible role in the safety program.

How to implement ISO 45001:2018 in my organization?
  • Get commitment and support from senior management.
  • Engage the whole business with good internal communication.
  • Compare your existing systems with ISO 45001 requirements.
  • Establish an implementation team to get the best results.
  • Map out and share roles, responsibilities and timescales
What do you understand by the term ‘AUDIT EVIDENCE’?

Audit evidence is evidence obtained by auditors as finding during audit and recorded in the audit working papers. Audit evidence supports the finding of auditor to hold his stand for both conformity and non-conformity.

What are the benefits of ISO 9001?
  • Suitable for both small and large organizations
  • Better internal management
  • Less errors
  • Increase in efficiency, productivity, and profit
  • Improved customer retention and acquisition
  • Consistent outcomes measured and monitored
  • Globally recognized standard
Is there any benefit of implementing ISO 17025 for an organization?
  • International Reputation

When you become accredited to ISO 17025, your laboratory will be able to win a great reputation and shows that it has high standards, putting it above competitors.

  • Cost Reduction

ISO 17025:2017 has strict guidelines and requires labs to carefully monitor results.

Getting accurate and precise results helps minimize the lab’s operational costs. When retesting is reduced, money will be saved.

  • Systematic Approach

ISO 17025:2017 requires labs to have taken a systematic approach to their activities. As a result, this helps keep lab protocols in place.

  • Improved Lab Testing Environment

Validity and appropriateness of test methods under prescribed lab environment results in more accurate outcomes. This ensures quality to customers, and also for your lab. When lab testing is improved it will save you time and number of tests and in return save you money. The standard also has strict guidelines for instruments and equipment, which in return results in reduced repairs and defect levels

  • Enhanced Customers’ Satisfaction Level

Labs will gain confidence of their clients and future clients easily because the ISO is a universally accepted standard. ISO 17025 requirements ensures that your lab is operating efficiently, consistently and is dedicated to providing the best results, and therefore providing customer satisfaction.

  • Employee Morale and Training

The standard requires training for staff members. The staff have defined roles, responsibilities and improves knowledge and can also diversify skill-sets. This often boosts employee morale and provides them with the training necessary to be competent.

What are benefits of ISO 37001 Anti-Bribery Management System standard on the organization?

Being an all-encompassing standard that is integrated with other management systems, the ISO 37001:2016 ABMS certification provides several benefits:

  • Competitive advantage over other organizations
  • Greater awareness on the output of bribery
  • Enhanced aptitude for the prevention of corruption
  • Expansion of business opportunities
  • Continual improvement of services and products
  • Enhancement of the organization’s reputation
  • Facilitation of efficient management operations
  • Apt demonstration of legal compliance and assurance
  • Reduction in structural and miscellaneous costs
  • Escalation of organizational assets
  • Better implementation of compliance programs
  • Precise execution of significant measures
  • Increase in business efficiency and effectivity
  • Superior trust and transparency
  • Reduction of malpractice and other hazards
  • Protection of resources and other capitals
  • Easy integration to existing management systems
  • Appropriate utilization as a due diligence evidence
  • Accurate evaluation of organization’s position
  • Recognition and deterrence of immediate threats
  • Placement of adequate procedures to combat risks
  • Timely observation and development of controls
  • Execution of feasible anti-bribery procedures
  • Practice of internationally recognized processes
  • Establishment of ethical global practice
What are Critical Control Points (CCPs)?

A critical control point is defined as a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level. The potential hazards that are reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of their control must be addressed in determining CCPs.

Critical control points are located at any step where hazards can be either prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels. Examples of CCPs may include thermal processing, chilling, testing ingredients for chemical residues, product formulation control, and testing product for metal contaminants. CCPs must be carefully developed and documented.

What are the principles of HACCP?

HACCP Principles

HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards based on the following seven principles:

Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.

Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs).

Principle 3: Establish critical limits.

Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.

Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.

Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.

 Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures

What is Data Management?

Data management is an administrative process that includes acquiring, validating, storing, protecting, and processing required data to ensure the accessibility, reliability, and timeliness of the data for its users. Data management software is essential, as we are creating and consuming data at unprecedented rates.


Five Data Management Skills that are important for successfully managing and using information.

  • Looking at and Analyzing Data.
  • Navigating Database Software.
  • Data Integrity.
  • Managing Accounts and Files.
  • Database Design and Planning.
What are the benefits of DATA MANAGEMENT?

Good data management will make your organization more productive. On the flip side, poor data management will lead to your organization being very inefficient. Good data management:

  • Makes it easier for your employees to find and understand the information that they need to do their job.
  • Allows your staff to easily validate results or conclusions they may have.
  • Provides the structure for information to be easily shared with others.

Allows information to be stored for future reference and easy retrieval.

What are the benefits of Data Governance?
  • There are clear benefits that stem from putting a data governance framework in place, as opposed to having nothing.
    • For example, the reason why data governance exists as a concept in the first place is to establish a common understanding of data across your organization. This includes providing a consistent view of the information, as well as common terminology for it, across the business.
  • One of the biggest advantages of implementing data governance practices is to make it possible to easily establish a single version of the truth for vendors or third parties that are relevant to your organization.
  • Once you have both a common understanding in place, along with a ‘single version of the truth’ for each piece of relevant data, naturally it follows that the quality of your data (namely aspects such as the accuracy or consistency of the information) should also improve.

 Other benefits of data governance include:

  • Making it easier for the business to scale (especially in terms of its IT landscape and systems) thanks to consistent data
  • Empowering improved and more informed decision-making thanks to better data
  • Allowing your organization to use the data more effectively (thus making it a more asset automatically). After all, good data easy integration
What is Data Governance (DG)?

Data Governance is a system of decision rights and accountabilities for information-related processes, executed according to agreed-upon models which describe who can take what actions with what information, and when, under what circumstances, using what methods

Data Governance is required to ensure that an organization’s information assets are formally, properly, proactively, and efficiently managed throughout the enterprise to secure its trust & accountability. … This infers into better organization of business operations.

What is a Manual?

A set of business processes reference to the scope of ISO standard with accordance to the standard’s contents similarly Annex-L.

The intention of this comprehensive document is to reflect the conformity of desired MSS as documented information. However; this document is not mandatory any more in all the recent MSS’s.